The Knowledge of Printed Circuit Board
PCB (Printed Circuit Board), the Chinese name is printed circuit board, also known as printed circuit board, is an important electronic component, a support for electronic components, and a carrier for electrical connection of electronic components. Because it is made by electronic printing, it is called a "printed" circuit board.
PCB (printed circuit board) is a printed circuit board, abbreviated as a printed circuit board, which is one of the important parts of the electronics industry. Almost every kind of electronic equipment, from electronic watches, calculators, to computers, communication electronic equipment, military weapon systems, as long as there are electronic components such as integrated circuits, in order to make the electrical interconnection between the various components must be printed board.
The printed circuit board is composed of an insulating bottom plate, a connecting wire and a pad for assembling and welding electronic components, and has the dual functions of a conductive circuit and an insulating bottom plate. It can replace complex wiring and realize the electrical connection between the various components in the circuit. It not only simplifies the assembly and welding of electronic products, reduces the workload of wiring in the traditional way, and greatly reduces the labor intensity of workers; it also reduces the overall machine Volume, reduce product cost, and improve the quality and reliability of electronic equipment. The printed circuit board has good product consistency, and it can adopt standardized design, which is conducive to the realization of mechanization and automation in the production process. At the same time, the entire printed circuit board that has been assembled and debugged can be used as an independent spare part to facilitate the interchange and maintenance of the entire product. At present, printed circuit boards have been extremely widely used in the manufacturing of electronic products.
The earliest printed circuit boards used paper-based copper-clad printed boards. Since the emergence of semiconductor transistors in the 1950s, the demand for printed boards has risen sharply. In particular, the rapid development and wide application of integrated circuits have made the volume of electronic equipment smaller and smaller, and the density and difficulty of circuit wiring have become greater and greater, which requires continuous updating of printed boards. At present, the variety of printed boards has developed from single-sided boards to double-sided boards, multilayer boards and flexible boards; structure and quality have also developed to ultra-high density, miniaturization and high reliability; new design methods, design supplies and Board-making materials and board-making techniques continue to emerge. In recent years, various computer-aided design (CAD) printed circuit board application software has been popularized and promoted in the industry. Among specialized printed board manufacturers, mechanized and automated production has completely replaced manual operations.
Classification according to the number of circuit layers: divided into single-sided, double-sided and multi-layer boards. Common multi-layer boards are generally 4-layer boards or 6-layer boards, and complex multi-layer boards can reach dozens of layers. The PCB board has the following three main types of division:
Single-Sided Boards On the most basic PCB, the parts are concentrated on one side, and the wires are concentrated on the other side (when there are SMD components and the wires are on the same side, the plug-in device is on the other side). Because the wires only appear on one side, this kind of PCB is called a single-sided (Single-sided). Because single-sided boards have many strict restrictions on the design of the circuit (because there is only one side, the wiring cannot cross and must be around a separate path), so only early circuits use this type of board.
Double-Sided Boards (Double-Sided Boards) This type of circuit board has wiring on both sides, but to use two-sided wires, there must be a proper circuit connection between the two sides. The "bridge" between such circuits is called a via. A via is a small hole filled or coated with metal on the PCB, which can be connected with the wires on both sides. Because the area of the double-sided board is twice as large as that of the single-sided board, the double-sided board solves the difficulty of interlacing wiring in the single-sided board (it can be conducted to the other side through holes), and it is more suitable for use in circuits that are more complicated than the single-sided board.
Multi-Layer Boards In order to increase the area that can be wired, multi-layer boards use more single or double-sided wiring boards. Use one double-sided as the inner layer, two single-sided as the outer layer, or two double-sided as the inner layer and two single-sided as the outer layer of the printed circuit board. The positioning system and the insulating bonding material alternately together and the conductive pattern Printed circuit boards that are interconnected according to design requirements become four-layer and six-layer printed circuit boards, also known as multilayer printed circuit boards. The number of layers of the board does not mean that there are several independent wiring layers. In special cases, empty layers are added to control the thickness of the board. Usually, the number of layers is even and includes the two outermost layers. Most of the motherboards have 4 to 8 layers of structure, but technically, it is possible to achieve nearly 100 layers of PCB boards. Most large supercomputers use fairly multi-layered motherboards, but because these types of computers can already be replaced by clusters of many ordinary computers, super-multilayered boards have gradually ceased to be used. Because the various layers in the PCB are tightly integrated, it is generally not easy to see the actual number, but if you look closely at the motherboard, you can still see it.
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